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Richard Savin
Richard Savin

Exceptional Children An Introduction To Special Education Whats New In Special Education 189

Her introduction to special education was in New York, where she taught 7th and 8th graders at a school near a prison. While working with her students, she saw about some of the too common obstacles to learning: poverty, gangs, and abuse. What they learned from her is that somebody cared.

Exceptional Children An Introduction To Special Education Whats New In Special Education 189

Loftus strives to create community not just in her classroom, but among parents, families and caregivers too because parents of special needs children often feel isolated. Laura Aesoph, principal of Olympic View Elementary, praised her ability to build the kind of trusting and non-adversarial relationships that can be life-changing for both her students and the adults who care for them.

Many of the key research and policy issues pertaining to exceptional learners involve their definitions and identification. For example, prior to SLD being formally recognized by the U.S. Department of Education in the 1970s, its prevalence was estimated at approximately 2% to 3% of the school-age population. However, the prevalence of students identified for special education as SLD grew rapidly until by 1999 it reached 5.68% for ages 6 to 17 years. Since then, the numbers identified as SLD has declined slowly but steadily. One probable explanation for the decrease is that response to intervention has largely replaced IQ-achievement as the method of choice for identifying SLD.

The Office of Diverse Learner Supports and Services works to support networks, schools, and families with all issues related to special education including instruction, interventions, and legal and compliance supports.

My research focuses on young children with disabilities who have experienced or are at risk for trauma (abuse, neglect, and or maltreatment etc.) and the formal and informal service delivery systems in which they participate. The long term goal of my research is to make high quality early childhood special education (ECSE) services accessible for all young children with disabilities and their families. My primary line of research examines ECSE experiences for young children who have experienced trauma. My work addresses the critical questions of: what types of support do young children/families who have experienced trauma need?; what types of support do ECSE professionals working with children/families who have experienced trauma need?; and how can service systems can meet the needs of children/families who have experienced trauma and ECSE professionals? The overarching purpose of this research is to facilitate service delivery to young children and their families that is both effective and efficient.

A second area of focus in my work relates to mixed methods research (MMR), approaches that are gaining popularity in the social sciences. Although, the field of special education has made consistent efforts to ensure researchers employ rigorous methods, the seminal work undertaken to advance research quality has focused predominately on the use of single methods approaches (Brantlinger, Jimenez, Klingner, Pugach, & Richardson, 2005; Gersten et al., 2005; Horner et al., 2005; Thompson, Diamond, McWilliam, Snyder, & Snyder, 2005;). While MMR approaches may be unfamiliar to many in the field of special education, when applied purposefully and rigorously, MMR can uniquely contribute to and enhance special education research. MMR designs yield great opportunities for special education researchers to strengthen and expand our methodological techniques. The overarching purpose of this research is to better design rigorous and responsive MMR studies that will inform the evidence base for supporting individuals with disabilities.

Concepts and Issues in SPED II (SPED 593) Seminar in current concepts and issues relating to all children with special needs; introduction to grant proposal writing; and introduction to journal reviewing; requires critical review of key readings and preparation of a literature review of a topic of current research in special education. Course is restricted to Special Education majors or consent of instructor.

For students with dyslexia, in order to be eligible under the category of SLD, RTI or other educational data may be used to demonstrate that the disability has a significant educational impact (Mather & Wendling, 2011). Therefore, some students who have been identified with dyslexia may meet state-determined criteria for the special education category of SLD, whereas others may not.

Some states have passed specific legislation related to dyslexia (see for an up-to-date list); others are attempting to pass legislation. Many of these laws require public schools to screen children for dyslexia during kindergarten, first grade, or second grade. A few of the states require teacher preparation programs to offer courses on dyslexia and for teachers to have in-service training (Youman & Mather, 2015). As of 2015, 14 states provided specific dyslexia handbooks for educators, parents, and legislators with clarification on newly passed dyslexia legislation and roles and responsibilities of state and local education agencies (e.g., Tennessee Department of Education, 2017).

Reading comprehension tests can vary along many dimensions, including mode of administration. Measures of reading comprehension can be individually administered (i.e., as part of a comprehensive evaluation to determine eligibility for special education services) or group administered, such as state-mandated assessments of reading.

Whereas the general and special education teachers play crucial roles in Steps 1 through 3, typically, the school psychologist or speech-language pathologist assesses specific areas of cognitive processing to determine whether there is a weakness in any specific area and if that area is associated with reading (see Figure 1).

Thus, it is possible (though unlikely) that a student may have a SLD as identified through this operational definition but would not require specialized instruction due to adequate performance in the classroom. In such an instance, the child would not meet criteria for special education services.

Furney, K. S., Hasazi, S. B., & Clark/Keefe, K. (2005). Multiple dimensions of reform: The impact of state policies on special education and supports for all students. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 16(3), 169-176.

Access to education has improved considerably over the past two decades, especially for girls and at earlier ages. Between 2000 and 2017, primary net enrollment increased by 50%, from 52 to 78%. However, the quality of education is extremely poor. In terms of learning and achievement, the primary completion rate is only about 67 %, and an estimated 86% of 10-year-olds in DRC are in learning poverty, meaning they cannot read and understand simple text.

Cegelka, P., Fitch, S., & Alvarado, J. (2001, March). The coach-of-coaches model for preparing rural special education teachers. Paper presented at the Growing Partnerships for Rural Special Education,&nbsp San Diego, CA. Delany, J. C., & Arredondo, D. E. &nbsp (1998, October). Using collegial coaching and reflection as mechanisms for changing school cultures, Paper&nbsp presented&nbsp at the Annual Meeting of the University Council for Educational Administration, St. Louis, MO (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED430903).

Dinnebeil, L. A., &nbsp McInerney, W. F., Roth, J., & Ramas- way, V.&nbsp (2001).Itinerant&nbsp early&nbsp childhood&nbsp special education services:&nbsp &nbsp Service delivery in one state. &nbsp &nbsp Journal of Early Intervention, 24, 35-44.

School systems have long grown comfortable with concepts and terms such as "least restrictive environment", "individualized planning", "mainstreaming", and "integration", following years of intense lobbying to place special education on the agenda of educational leaders. These terms reflect not only a changing educational system but an evolving society that is more accepting of disabilities. The last part of the 20th century has clearly witnessed rapid changes in society's treatment of citizens with disabilities, especially in areas of human rights provisions, residential programs and educational services (Heward, 2000; Weber, 1995). While discrimination continues to exist (Neufeldt & Mathieson, 1995; Rioux, 1984), few can argue that services have improved significantly. This is clearly reflected in the educational system where special education is not only firmly entrenched in law but is also core to the array of programs offered by many schools (Weber, 1994). Central to contemporary special education is the concept of inclusive education, a philosophy of student placement and program delivery that has tended to dominate discussions in recent years. In Newfoundland the issue of inclusion moved to the forefront of special education with the release of Pathways to Programming and Graduation (1998). In addition, the draft Special Education Policy Manual (1999) strongly promotes a collaborative decision-making process that helps ensure a "willingness of all personnel to be responsible for all students [and] the full acceptance of diversity within the student population" (p.3.1).

The 1990's witnessed a growth of criticism of special education, fuelled in part by the educational reform movement, which brought close scrutiny of programs (Kaufman, 2000). While the motivating force may well have been cost-effectiveness, it has resulted in a plethora of literature on both the virtues and vices of the special education system. The result of this examination is a wealth of information that can provide direction to special education leaders, especially as they manoeuver through the remnants of reform and the often-controversial issue of inclusion (Kauffman, 1999). What themes emerge from this literature? Can a review of our past practice improve future delivery? Will revisiting the roots of inclusion offer clearer direction to program planners and special education leaders? This paper will attempt to answer these questions by reviewing the literature on inclusive education, paying particular attention to the criticisms that may offer hope for improvements. The intention is to identify the lessons, if any, which have been learned from this model of delivery and how this knowledge can improve practice, with specific focus on the Newfoundland model. 350c69d7ab


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